Terms and Definitions

Chemical Bond- A chemical bond is a force that holds atoms together.

Ionic Bond - A ionic bond is a chemical bond that it made by losing or gaining electrons and having the atoms. This causes the opposite
ions to attract and stay together. Only a metal and a nonmetal can bond this way.

Covalent Bond - Covalent bonds use a chemical bonding and can only be done by two non-metals. Covalent bonds share electrons and when each of the atoms share 1 electron, 2 electrons, 3 electrons, it is called Single bonding, Double bonding, and triple bonding, respectively. Also, atoms that bond to themselves do so with covalent bonds. This creates a strong bond between them.

Electron Dot Diagram- An electron dot diagram is a diagram that represents the amount of electrons in an atom of an element. The
amount of electrons is displayed by dots or crosses around the symbol of the element.

Polar vs. Non-Polar- The difference of elements sharing electrons unequally or equally, click link for more!

Formula- A formula is the combination of symbols and numbers that represent the types of elements and the number of elements in a
compound.

Cation- A cation is when a neutral atom loses an electron, the atom becomes positive and becomes a cation.

Anion- An anion is when a neutral atom gains an electron, the atom becomes negative and becomes an anion.

Compound- A compound is two or more different elements that bond together by chemical bonds. When the atoms bond together they
change the number of electrons in their outer shells and therefore change their properties

Helpful Images and Illustrations


Dia. 1 - Single Covalent Bond - This is where 2 or more atoms combine covalently by sharing only one electron.
Dia. 2 - Double Covalent Bond - This is where 2 or more atoms combine covalently by sharing 2 electons.
Dia. 3 - Triple Covalent Bond - This is where 2 or more atoms combine covalently by sharing 3 electrons.


Ionic_Bonds.jpg
Fig. 1: This is a picture of an Ionic Bond. Notice how the atom moves from one element to the other and they are both charged. This causes
the elements to stick together.

Todd, Joselyn. "PDF 10: Ionic and Covalent Bonds." [Podcast Entry] Science 7- Trimester Two Podcasts, Vodcasts, and Deliverables. 26
August 2006: 10. Science 7. 12 Dec 2006 <http://web1.caryacademy.org/facultywebs/joselyn_todd/rss/science72.xml>.

external image Sodium_bromide.jpg

Fig. 2. This is a picture of the compound Sodium Bromide (NaBr). This compound is an example of ionic bonding.

"Sodium bromide." Wikipedia, The Free Encyclopedia. 5 Dec 2006, 21:07 UTC. Wikimedia Foundation, Inc. 13 Dec 2006 <http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Sodium_bromide&oldid=92302236>.

external image img018.gif
Figure.3-This is an example of a covalent bond. Oxygen is sharing its two electrons with two hydrogen atoms.

None, None. "Chapter 4 Chemistry." The Biology Web. 2006. None. 13 Dec 2006 <http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20101/Bio%20101%20Lectures/Chemistry/chemistr.htm>
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external image image15.gif

Figure 4: This is a diagramitic representation of a water molecule having polar covalent bonds since the 2 electrons each sharing with a hydrogen atom are more attracted to the bigger mass which is the oxygen atom. The hydrogen atoms have a positive charge since it gave away its electron and the oxygen atom have positive 2 charge.

Nishiura, James. "Polar Covalent Bonds." Important Information. 2006. None. 14 Dec 2006 <http://academic.brooklyn.cuny.edu/biology/bio4fv/page/polar_c.htm>.

external image chembonds1.gif
Figure 5. Electron Dot Diagram/Covalent Bond of H2. The image above is of two electron dot diagram (hydrogen) forming a covalent bond to
create H2. The image shows two electron dot diagram of hydrogen each sharing one electron. They did this so that they both have 2
electrons in their outer energy levels and are happy.

"Molecules and Chemical Bonds." 13 Dec 2006 <http://campus.northpark.edu/biology/cell/chembonds.html>.


external image periodic_table.gif
Figure 6: Periodic Table of Elements. Note: the Halogens and the Noble gases are also non-metals but the Noble gases do not like to combine with anything else since it already has 8 electrons on its outer shell.

MLA Citations: "Periodic Table of Elements." Corrosion Source. 13 Dec 2006 <http://www.corrosionsource.com/handbook/periodic/>


Figure 6: YouTube Video of Ionic Bonding

MLA Citations: "Ionic Bond." YouTube Brodcast Yourself. September 15, 2006. YouTube, Inc. 13 Dec 2006 <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xTx_DWboEVs>.


Figure 7: YouTube Video of Covalent Bonding

MLA Citations: "Covalent Bond." YouTube Brodcast Youself. September 13, 2006. YouTube, Inc. 13 Dec 2006 <http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1wpDicW_MQQ>.

Practice Problems (w/ Answers)


Like the homework the other night, write down the electron dot diagrams for the following elements. Follow the steps that were used in the
homework the other night for each. Use brackets and make sure to show the change in the number of electrons from one atom to the
other. Don't forget you can use more than one atom of each electron.

Ionic Bonds:
  1. Na Br
  2. Ca S
  3. H2 O
  4. H Cl
  5. K Cl
  6. Mg O
  7. Li Cl
Covalent Bonds:
  1. C Be

Covalent or Ionic Bonds-

1. NaBr
2. Co2
3. N2
4. MgI
5. O2
6. CaF2

7. K Br

Polar, Non-Polar, Covalent, Ionic, Cation, Anion, and Dot Diagrams-

Quiz- just fill in the table!
Answers-

Interactive Resources, etc. from the Web

**http://www.quia.com/quiz/891083.html** - Quiz on atom bonding

Chemical Bonding Quiz - Follow the link to a multiple choice quiz on Chemical Bonding. Because the quiz was designed for a High
School course, some of the questions don't apply to the test on Friday, but many of them do.

Ionic and Covalent Bonding Quiz - Here is a quiz on Ionic and Covalent bonding. When it asks you for your name type in any random
name, but not your name and when it asks for your email type in any random email, but not yours (ex. name- Billy bob, email- billybobthefarmer@random.com).

Chemical Bonds - Another Quia quiz that tests your highly intelligible knowledge that might help a lot on your MAJOR quiz on Friday.

If you're really desperate, check out this book from the library or order it from Amazon.

Try this page about matter in general, with a lengthy section on bonding. http://faculty.clintoncc.suny.edu/faculty/Michael.Gregory/files/Bio%20101/Bio%20101%20Lectures/Chemistry/chemistr.htm